EPISPADIAS – Causes, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnostic Evaluations, Treatment and Nursing Diagnosis
EPISPADIASIS – Causes, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnostic Evaluations, Treatment and Nursing Diagnosis
Epispadias is a rare congenital (present from birth) defect in the location of the opening of the urethra. In this condition, the urethra does not develop into a full tube and the urine exits the body from an abnormal location
CAUSES OF EPISPADIAS
The causes of epispadias are unknown at this time. It may be related to improper development of the pubic bone.
In boys with epispadias, the urethra generally opens on the top or side (rather than the tip) of the penis, though it is possible for the urethra to be open the entire length of the penis. In girls, the opening is usually between the clitoris and the labia, but may be in the abdomen.
Epispadias can be associated with bladder exstrophy, an uncommon birth defect in which the bladder is inside out, and sticks through the abdominal wall. However, epispadias can also occur with other defects. Epispadias occurs in 1 in 117,000 newborn boys and 1 in 484,000 newborn girls. The condition is usually diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter.
Surgical repair of epispadias is recommended in patients with more than a mild case. Leakage of urine (incontinence) is not uncommon and may require a second operation.
Surgery generally leads to the ability to control the flow of urine and a good cosmetic outcome