nurseinfo nursing notes for bsc, msc, p.c. or pb.bsc and gnm nursing

VIRAL INFECTION – HERPES SIMPLEX  - Mode of Transmission, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnostic Evaluations and Treatment 

VIRAL INFECTION – HERPES SIMPLEX - Mode of Transmission, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnostic Evaluations and Treatment

VIRAL INFECTION – HERPES SIMPLEX  - Mode of Transmission, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnostic Evaluations and Treatment

Herpes simplex virus infection is a common viral infection of the skin that tends to recur repeatedly. It is also called fever blister or cold sore. There are two types of herpes simplex: that caused by type 1 virus (HSV-1), which occurs above the waist on lips, face and mouth and causes a fever blister or cold sore, and that caused by type II virus (HSVII), which occurs below the waist and causes genital herpes.

MODES OF TRANSMISSION

Herpes is transmitted by direct contact, respiratory droplet, or contact with virus containing fluid-saliva or cervical secretions in the form of kissing and oral sex. Trauma, sunlight, mensus, stress and systematic infection often cause reoccurrence and exacerbation of infection.

 

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS


  • Burning and tingling sensation at the site for a few hours before eruption
  • Area becomes erythematous and swollen
  • Vesicles and pustules erupt in 1 to 2 days
  • Redness with no blistering
  • Lesions can burn, itch, and be painful
  • Vesicles become pustules, ulcers and crusting until healing occurs in 10-14 days
  • Fever, sore throat are systematic manifestations of initial infection
  • The patient is contagious until scabs are formed


 

DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATIONS


  • Assess the appearance of lesions
  • Tzanck smear identifies herpes virus
  • Vesicle fluid culture differentiate herpes virus from bacterial infections


 

TREATMENT


  1. There is no complete cure for herpes simplex
  2. Topical acyclovir (zovirax) ointment is the drug of choice for primary lesions, to suppress the multiplication of vesicles
  3. Oral acyclovir may be recommended for severe attacks or immune-suppressed patients
  4. Lotions, creams, and ointments may be prescribed to accelerate drying and healing of lesions (e.g. camphor, phenol, alcohol)
  5. Antibiotics may be indicated for secondary infections