The word hygiene is derived from the Greek word “Hygia” which means “Goodness of Health”.
Hygiene is the science and art which is associated with the prevention and promotion of health. Good personal hygiene is important to a person’s general health.
Personal health implies to those principles of physical cleanliness and mental health, which are practiced by a person at individual level. Personal health includes body (bathing and washing), care of hair and feet, mouth cleanliness and care of teeth, care of the nose and ears, clothing, postures, exercise, recreation, rest and relaxation, sleep habits and nutrition.
Personal hygiene is maintained for a person’s comfort and well being. A variety of personal and socio-cultural factors influence the client’s hygiene practices.
Purpose of Personal Hygiene
1. To prevent from infection.
2. To prevent illness.
3. To remove the dirt from body and environment.
4. To promote good health.
5. To improve the standard of health.
6. To maintain quality of life of an individual.
7. To promote mental well being.
8. To promote society and spiritual health.
9. To improve the self esteem in the society.
10. To maintain resistance.
11. To keep the body clean and .function normally.
12. To maintenance of physical and psychological homeostasis and to promote individuals comfort, safety and well being.
13. To relieve from stress, anxiety, depression etc.
Mouth care is defined as the scientific care of the teeth and mouth by using antiseptic solutions.
1. To keep mucosa clean, soft, moist and intact.
2. To keep the lips, clean, soft, moist and intact.
3. To prevent oral infections.
4. To remove the food debris as well as dental plague without damaging the gum.
5. To alleviate pain, discomfort and enhance oral intake with appetite.
A clear tray containing:
1. sterile dressing tray.
2. Mackintosh and towel.
3. Tooth brush and paste.
4. Mouth wash solution.
5. Cup of water.
6. Face towel.
7. Sponge cloth.
8. A tongue depressor/spatula.
9. A pair of gloves
10. Gauze pieces.
12. Kidney tray.
13. A bowl with clean water.
1. Explain the procedure to patient
Rationale : to reduce the unease and get the co-operation from the patient.
2. Wash hands.
Rationale: to reduce transmission of microorganisms.
3. Gather all equipments near the patient side.
Rationale: to promote efficiency.
4. Discuss procedure with patient.
Rationale: to discover hygiene preferences.
5. Wear clean gloves.
Rationale : to prevent contact with microorganisms or body fluids.
6. Assess oral mucosa, teeth and throat.
Rationale: to determine status of oral cavity and patient’s need for care and teaching.
7. Take the patient to the edge of bed and if possible in semi-fowler if it is not contraindicated.
Rationale : for no difficulty of doing the procedure and to prevent the aspiration.
8. Put a small mackintosh with a face towel on the patient’s chest and tuck it under the chin.
Rationale : to prevent the soil and make the patient comfortable.
9. Place kidney tray against the cheek and directly under the mouth.
Rationale : to dispose the used gauze.
10. Raise the head end of the bed to 45 degree.
Rationale : to avoid the aspiration.
11. If the patient is unconscious; with help of tongue depressor, gently open the jaw.
Rationale : To Prevent injury and bleeding.
12. Examine the patient’s oral cavity completely with the help of torch, tongue depressor or spatula and gauze.
Rationale : to identify any changes in moistures, cleanliness, infection or bleeding, ulcers in the oral cavity.
13. Pour antiseptic gauze into a cup a soak gauze in solution, and squeeze with help of artery forceps.
Rationale : to prevent the infections and easy to do the procedure.
14. Clean teeth from incissors to molars using up and down movement from gums to crown.
Rationale: to promote the circulation and proper cleanliness.
15. Use one clamp to pick up gauze and the other to clean.
Rationale: to avoid cross contamination.
16. Clean oral cavity from proximal to distal using one gauze for each stroke with wet gauze.
Rationale: to avoid cross contamination.
17. For supportive and oriented patients, tooth brush might be used to clean the teeth.
Rationale : this facilitates the patient to involve in self care.
18. Discard used gauze into the basin.
Rationale : to help for proper disposal and make the patient comfortable.
19. Provide a tumbler of water and instruct the patient to gargle mouth.
Rationale: rinising takes away loosened debris and make the mouth taste and fresher.
20. Position K- basin properly.
Rationale : To prevent the spillage to other area.
21. Clean tongue from inner to outer aspect folding rag piece in such a way that the tip.
Rationale: to prevent injury and remove the bad taste in the mouth.
22. Provide water to rinse mouth.
Rationale : rinsing removes loosened debris and make the mouth taste fresher.
23. Lubricate lips using swab stick.
Rationale: to prevent dry lips and lips crack.
24. Wipe face with towel.
Rationale: To make the patient comfortable and promote the positive body image.
25. Rinse used articles and replace equipment.
Rationale: to Promote the safe and comfortable environment to the patient.
Preparation of the Client and Unit.
1. Explain the procedure to the client (if the client is conscious) to gain the co-operation and confidence of the client.
2. Provide privacy.
3. Maintain a safe comfortable position for the client. Place the client in a sitting position or in a fowler’s position with a cardiac table in front. Arrange all articles on the cardiac table and assist him as needed.
4. Place the mackintosh and face towel across the chest and under the chin to protect the bed clothes and garment.
5. Place the kidney tray close to the cheek with the concave side towards the client or allow the client to adjust the kidney, if he can, according to his convenience, to receive the waste water.
6. Remove dentures (if any) and place it in a bowel of clean water.
7. Arrange the articles conveniently convenient for nurse and the client to avoid over reaching.
HYGIENE PROCEDURE - MOUTH CARE. A SIMPLE LEARNING FOR NURSES.
AUTHOR: AMRITA MANDAL